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November 11, 2021

Key points of grape planting in late autumn

1.Preparation before planting. (1) dig planting ditches. Dig the planting ditch according to the row spacing, with the depth and width of 60-80cm respectively. Open the topsoil and subsoil separately. After excavation, sprinkle a layer of 10-15cm thick organic matter (such as wheat straw, rice straw, etc.) at the bottom of the ditch, mix it with the soil, fill the subsoil 10-15cm thick, put a layer of 5-10cm thick fertile soil mixed with manure, cake fertilizer and other organic fertilizers, and finally fill the topsoil and water it. (2) seedling renovation and disinfection. 3-4 full buds of scion shall be reserved for grafted seedlings, 3-4 full buds above the root neck shall be reserved for self rooted seedlings, and the excessively long branches and roots shall be properly trim tray. The roots were soaked with 50 mg / kg naphthylacetic acid solution or 25 mg / kg indole butyric acid solution for 8-12 hours. Spray seedlings with 5 degree stone sulfur mixture to sterilize.

2.Planting time. Grape seedlings can be planted from late November in late autumn to before Qingming Festival next year. Green shoots cultivated by greenhouse and ground temperature heating can be planted after Qingming Festival and before mid and late June. Seedlings are planted in autumn from mid to late November to early December, and in spring from February to Qingming Festival. Autumn planting takes root first and spring planting germinates first, so autumn planting is better than spring planting. However, the disadvantage of autumn planting is that the soil has not been weathered through winter. At the same time, in order to avoid winter cold and winter drought, rhizosphere soil cultivation and regular watering should be strengthened.

3.Planting density. The determination of grape planting density should consider many factors, such as variety characteristics, frame type, climate factors, site conditions, cultivation habits and so on. Taking double cross V-shaped frame cultivation as an example, the varieties with weak growth potential, such as Yafu Rosa and Jingya, have a plant row spacing of 0.8-1m ? 2.5m; Varieties with moderate growth potential, such as Yongyou No. 1, gaowife, Tengren, etc., have a plant row spacing of 1.2-1.5m ? 2.5m; Varieties with strong growth potential, such as meimeizhi, xinnongle and Weike, have a plant row spacing of 1.5-2m ? 2.5m. In order to obtain early high yield or give full play to the market advantage of new grape varieties, the planting method of early dense planting and later partial thinning can be adopted.

4.Planting method. Dig planting holes according to plant spacing, and the width depends on the size of root system. Select sunny or cloudy days for planting. Planting in autumn should be shallow and deeply buried, that is, the seedlings should be placed vertically in the hole, and the depth should be the depth of the original seedbed, so that the root system can be extended and evenly distributed. When the soil is filled to half, gently lift the seedlings to make the root system close to the soil. When the soil is filled to the ground, pour water firmly, and then cover the soil 20 cm thick, in the shape of steamed bread. Next spring, pick up the soil to the root and neck. Planting in spring should be shallow planting and shallow burying, which is conducive to early root activity. If possible, plastic film can be used to cover and sawtooth greenhouse keep warm and moist.
Posted by      Thump M. at 3:17 AM EST

November 3, 2021

Introduction to cultivation techniques of Zinnia

Zinnia is a plant with short sunshine, so it is necessary to regulate the flowering period by regulating the sunshine length. When the daily illumination is longer than 14 hours, the flowering will be delayed. It takes about 70 days from sowing to flowering, and the tongue flowers will increase significantly; When the sunshine is less than 12 hours, it can bloom in advance. It only takes 60 days from sowing to flowering. At this time, there are more tubular flowers. In addition, the flowering period can also be controlled by adjusting the sowing date and picking time grow table hydroponic.

In the process of sowing, Zinnia chinensis requires a well drained, loose and fertile soil environment. Generally, the germination temperature is 21-22 degrees. It needs to be covered with soil during germination, and it can germinate in 2-5 days. During the growth process, the daily temperature should be kept at 18 degrees and the night temperature should reach 21 degrees. The time from sowing to flowering is generally 9-10 weeks. In addition, it is worth noting that Zingiber grass should avoid continuous cropping and should be rotated in time.

The following measures are usually taken to control it: first, appropriately reduce the temperature, second, ensure sufficient nutritional area and increase the spacing between plants and rows; Third, pick the heart in time to promote the growth of axillary buds. The specific operation method is generally carried out when the plant height is about 10 cm, leaving 2 to 4 pairs of true leaves and picking the heart. If you want to make the plant low and blossom, you often spray dwarfing agent when the axillary buds grow to about 3 cm after picking the heart. For open cultivation of seedlings without overgrowth, coring treatment should also be carried out in order to limit their growth height.

Zinnia has strong growth potential, likes warm, dry and sunny environment, and can tolerate semi shade. The suitable temperature for growth is 20 ~ 25 °C, which is not resistant to heat. When the temperature is higher than 35°C, the growth trend is obviously weakened, the flowers are rare and the flowers are small. It is a short sunshine plant. Under long sunshine (14 hours / day), the plant height increases and there are more tongue flowers; Under short sunshine (9 hours / day), tongue flowers became smaller and tubular flowers increased. It has strong adaptability and does not choose soil, but it grows best in fertile soil with deep soil layer and good drainage. In the case of rainy summer or poor soil drainage, the plants are slender, the flowers become smaller, and continuous cropping is prohibited.

Zinnia is mainly propagated by seeds and can also be propagated by cutting. Seed reproduction is suitable for spring sowing, which is generally carried out in the middle and late April, and the suitable temperature for germination is 15-20°C. Its seeds are photophobic. After sowing, they should be covered with soil, watered and moisturized, and germinate and emerge after about 1 week. The germination rate is generally about 60%. During the period from Xiaoman to the summer solstice, combined with coring and pruning, select strong branches, cut a section of tender branches 10 ~ 15cm long as cuttings, remove the lower leaves, leave the upper two leaves, insert them into the fine river sand, spray water frequently and shade appropriately, and take root after about 2 weeks.

After the survival of colonization, it is not necessary to apply fertilizer too frequently during the seedling raising period. Generally, liquid fertilizer is applied once a month. Near the flowering stage, more topdressing can be applied, and liquid fertilizer can be applied every 5 ~ 7 days until the flowers are in full bloom. When the seedling is up to 10 cm high, leave 2 pairs of leaves, block the head and pick the heart to promote its germination and lateral branches. When the lateral branches grow to 2 ~ 3 pairs of leaves, leave 2 pairs of leaves and pick the heart for the second time. In this way, the plant can be large and have many flowers. After spring sowing, flowers can bloom after 70 days. The hundred day chrysanthemum blooms at the top of the branch. When the flower is broken, leave 2 pairs of leaves at the base of the flower stem in time, and cut off the broken flower, so as to induce new branches at the leaf axil of the incision. Watering frequently after pruning and topdressing 2 ~ 3 times can extend the flowering date to before frost. The first batch of mature seeds before the rainy season are of good quality and should be collected and reserved in time grow table.

When sowing seedlings with 4-6 leaves, they are planted in a 10-12 cm basin. There are few lateral roots of Zinnia, so pay attention to less injury to lateral roots during transplanting. When the seedling height is 10 cm, pick the heart to promote more lateral branches. In production, in order to dwarf plants, spray with 0.5% longer than 2 weeks after picking the heart, and the effect is remarkable. Growth regulating substances can also be used to regulate the flowering period. Spraying 0.25% - 0.4% bijiu solution at the seedling stage can bloom in advance and the flowers are compact; If you spray 0.4% - 0.8% bijiu or chlorzhuang for 2-4 times, the flowering will be delayed. Fertilize once every half month in the seedling stage, and apply phosphorus and potassium fertilizer twice before flower bud formation. Or use "Huiyou" 20-20-20 general fertilizer. If there is no seed left after flowering, the residual flowers need to be removed in time to promote the germination of new lateral branches between leaf axils and bloom again. Seedlings and plants must be isolated to prevent hybridization between varieties and affect seed quality.
Posted by      Thump M. at 2:22 AM EDT

October 25, 2021

Grape safe overwintering management technology

1. Cut grapes in winter before overwintering to reduce the water evaporation of branches and vines in winter. Water should be poured once to maintain the water needs of weak root activities in winter. During overwintering, it must be checked once every half a month. If the soil is dry, it should be watered in time. Ice and snow weather should be avoided during watering to avoid root damage caused by too low water temperature flood table.

2. Clean the garden. After pruning, the pruned leaf vine shall be thoroughly cleaned, and the leaves on the vine must be cleaned. Otherwise, the leaves and vines are buried together. The decay of the leaves can cause the decay of the vines and affect the next year's grape yield.

3. Topdressing. In order to ensure the robust growth of plants in the coming year, some rotten organic fertilizers can be applied in combination with winter cutting. Note that the amount of fertilizer used should not be too much, and the base fertilizer used should not directly contact the grape roots.

4. Cold proof and thermal insulation management. Maintain the soil temperature and promote the rapid growth of its roots.

(1) Binding and covering cold proof method. Bundle the pruned grape branches and vines into bundles, wrap them with 1-2 layers of straw curtains or sack pieces, then cover them with 15-20cm thick sawdust, cover them with a layer of plastic film after compaction, and compact them with soil around the film.

(2) Sand, film, leaf and straw four layer cold protection method. That is, cover the branches and vines with 20cm thick sand, cover the sand with a layer of plastic film, spread a layer of corn leaves of about 10cm on the plastic film, and press 60cm thick corn straw on the leaves, so as to achieve the effects of raising vines with sand, moisturizing the film, densifying the leaves and keeping the straw warm. The first three layers shall be covered in the near future. The latter layer is carried out after freezing.

(3) Hollow cold proof method. Use bricks and Adobe to form a groove in the ditch, bundle the branches and vines cut in winter, put them in the middle, put a shed with wooden poles, put sorghum straw and grass bags, and cover them for 20-30 cm; Then cover leaves or firewood for 50cm, and leave several ventilation holes along the ground for temperature measurement and ventilation at any time; Close at 0 ?? and open at Qingming next year rolling benches.

(4) Plastic film cold proof method. With the continuous improvement of cold protection technology, the cold protection method of covering with plastic film has appeared in recent years. For the shape of single dragon vine, it is also necessary to dish up the grape branches, and the upturned branches should be placed flat to avoid breaking the plastic film. After the plate is laid flat, press it slightly with soil, then cover it with a 1.4m wide 0.07mm black plastic film, and compact the surrounding of the film with soil.
Posted by      Thump M. at 3:50 AM EDT

October 18, 2021

Eight points for planting fruit trees in autumn

In autumn, with the gradual decline of temperature, after fruit tree seedlings are planted, the wound of underground root heals quickly, the evaporation of aboveground part is small and the survival rate is high. Moreover, the fruit tree seedlings cultivated in autumn will germinate early, blossom early and bear stable results in the coming spring.

1. Planting time: the earlier fruit trees are planted in autumn, the higher the survival rate. Generally, it is appropriate from mid September to early November nft gully.

2. Digging pits: it is better to plant high-quality nursery seedlings with high lignification degree in autumn. The nursery should be watered once before seedling raising. The seedling raising requires complete root system, the length of taproot is more than 30 cm, and less damage to lateral roots and fibrous roots. Seedlings should be planted at the same time.

3. Planting: dig a tree pit on the planting site, backfill a part of soil, then put the seedlings into the pit, straighten them, fill in fine wet soil, lift the seedlings slightly upward to make the roots stretch out, and then fill them with solid soil. The planting depth requires that the root neck be flat or slightly deeper than the ground. The depth shall not exceed 5cm of the root neck.

4. Pruning: cut off 20cm for good quality seedlings, 1 / 3 of the seedling height for poor quality seedlings, and cut off a secondary branch to facilitate the germination of new branches.

5. Pouring frozen water: pour frozen water once before winter, in the middle and late November.

6. Burying soil for cold protection: seedlings should be pushed to the south to prevent large changes in soil temperature from causing sunburn above the root and neck of seedlings. You can't pull dead when overwhelming, because the seedlings are crisp and tender, which is easy to cause cracking or breaking. When overwhelming, 20cm wet fine soil shall be cultivated on the south side of the seedlings.

7. Time for removing cold proof soil: causal trees germinate late and go to the soil later than other seedlings. It is generally controlled in the middle of April. In case of spring cold, the time can be postponed. The soil removal shall be completed in stages. First remove a thin layer of soil, then gradually remove all the soil, and straighten the seedlings.

8. Mulching film: before germination in spring, pour a germination promoting water, and then cover mulching film to preserve moisture and improve ground temperature, so as to improve the survival rate of seedlings.
Posted by      Thump M. at 2:57 AM EDT

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