Now you need to consider a plan for your personal survival. A good plan and preliminary preparation will allow a person in distress to overcome difficulties and dangers and as a result will help to stay alive.
When making a survival plan, remember that if you were in a plane crash or shipwreck, your geographic location was most likely aired immediately before the crash. Thus, the rescue services roughly know where to look for survivors. Most likely, rescuers will immediately or almost immediately begin the search. But you still need to make some decisions. You can�??t just sit and passively wait for salvation - trust in the problem of survival only on yourself and not on others. For many people, making a decision is a big problem, but this is the only way to establish control over the situation.
Demonstrating your calmness and self-confidence will help your comrades in misfortune to find these feelings, which will make drawing up a plan easier - people follow the leader.
FROM THE EXPERIENCE OF THE BRITISH SPECIAL AVIATION SERVICE (CAC)
Standard procedure for an airplane accident
The British CAC recommends that people who have an airplane accident immediately after an airplane crash do the following:
�?� Do not leave the vicinity of the disaster immediately, despite the danger.
�?� Immediately provide first aid to those in need.
�?� Separate the living from the dead.
�?� Save everything that can be saved from the wreckage - equipment, supplies, clothing, water.
�?� Create a rough idea of �??�??the geographic location of the disaster.
�?� DO NOT MOVE at night unless absolutely necessary.
Assessing the situation is the most important factor in making a survival plan. You should be as objective as possible and weigh all the positive and negative aspects of the situation in which you find yourself. For example, you find yourself in the Arctic, in conditions of low temperatures, which is the main threat, but at the same time you will not experience a lack of water - it is abundant in the form of snow and ice. In the tropics, you will have many sources of food, while heat and humidity will be the main danger.
The main priorities in peak situations are shelter, fire and water. If you have access to water and fuel for a fire (wood), it means that you have access to material for building a shelter. In the presence of all three priority factors, you will settle down in the place where circumstances have thrown you, in the shortest possible time.
It should be noted here again that it is extremely important to think carefully over all aspects of the situation in which you find yourself. For example, if you were in a plane crash, you could collect material for building a shelter among the wreckage of a plane, making sure that there is no risk of explosions or fire. Polyurethane foam filler aircraft seats suitable for kindling or as a heater, such as legs. Aircraft batteries can be used to light bonfires. Tires of aircraft wheels can serve to build a wonderful signal fire - black thick smoke from burning rubber is noticeable for many kilometers. But if after the disaster you leave the wreckage, you will lose all these useful things and materials.
Getting on the road or staying in place is a difficult decision for those in need. Serious arguments for staying in place are listed above. First, search and rescue groups warned of a disaster over the radio will know where to look for you. Secondly, moving, you will burn too many calories, be exposed to new external factors, often hostile, you will not be able to establish an effective signaling system - your self-confidence will be seriously tested if you see a rescue plane, but you can�??t to signal him - and finally, you risk literally driving yourself to death. But still, if for some reason you decide to set off, your rescue plan should include the following points:
�?� The direction of your movement.
�?� A way to maintain your chosen direction.
�?� Schedule for every day.
�?� A way of giving signals.
Remember that at the end of each day you should leave enough time for yourself to set up camp and prepare signaling means in case of a rescue plane flying over you
If you decide to stay still, your rescue plan should include the following items:
�?� Development of a signaling system.
�?� The location and structure of your camp.
�?� Search for the nearest water source.
�?� Determining your diet.
It is extremely important from the very beginning to develop a signaling system, since a search aircraft can fly over you at any time and you need to be prepared to give signals at any time. In this regard, a camp should be set up in the immediate vicinity of the signal system.
You also need survival and medical skills to sustain life and then return to civilization. These skills will be revealed in the following chapters.
What clothes to wear?
Any traveler needs clothing that can withstand the effects of weather and the environment. The following are the principles that you must follow in order to choose the right clothes for your peak situation. The main one is - no compromises when it comes to clothing!
If you just survived a plane crash or a similar misfortune, then you are most likely dressed in something light, comfortable, completely unsuitable for an extreme situation. In these cases, you need to improvise (see the chapter on impromptu clothing, tools, and weapons). If you, for example, a tourist or a traveler, should be dressed and equipped not better than just an example, just to cope with the difficulties of the peak situation. In this case, it is completely unjustifiable for you to wear unsuitable clothing or unsuitable equipment.
Nowadays, due to the growing interest in outdoor recreation, a huge amount of tourist clothing has appeared on sale, with a huge range of prices and quality. In the framework of this book, it is impossible to describe the entire spectrum of clothing suitable for extreme situations. However, some of the fundamental principles that allow you to make the right choice of clothing for survival are listed below.
How to choose clothes for survival?
The main principle when choosing clothes is its functionality, suitability for work. For example, an elegant urban demi-season jacket or raincoat is completely unsuitable for wearing in the harsh conditions of the Arctic, taiga, desert or tropics. Do not save on clothes - IT IS YOUR BASIC SHIELD FROM EXPOSURE TO COLD, MOISTURE AND WIND!
But how do you know what exactly you need? The answer is simple - read on, then go to one or two sports or tourist shops, describe to the seller your approximate requirements for the chosen product. In short, as in any special operations operation, the first step is good intelligence. As a result of such a purchase, you will not be disappointed in the quality of your clothes in the midst of an expedition. A little preliminary planning pays off handsomely.
US Air Force pilots from experience in harsh climates developed the following principles for handling clothing in an emergency:
�?� Avoid contamination of clothing.
�?� Avoid overheating.
�?� Wear loose clothing in several layers.
�?� Keep clothes dry.
�?� Inspect clothing regularly for damage and abrasions.
�?� Repair torn clothing immediately.
Gorteks (Gore-tex) or similar fabric is ideal material for camping clothes. It �??breathes�??, that is, it allows the moisture released by the skin pores to evaporate, but it does not allow water to enter from the outside. This effect is achieved due to the microporous structure of the gortex (several billion pores per square centimeter). These pores are 20 thousand times smaller than the smallest water droplet, but 700 times larger than the water vapor molecule. Thus, the fabric is not blown, protects from water, allowing sweat secretions to freely evaporate. Clothing made from �??breathable�?? fabric is not cheap, but on the other hand, how much are you willing to pay for your life?
The principle of layers provides maximum protection against environmental influences with minimal loss of mobility in all climatic zones. Its basis is simple: still air is the best thermal insulation, and the best way to create an air gap is to trap air in clothes. The more layers of clothing the body protects, the better it is thermally insulated. Thermoregulation is also simple to primitiveness - according to your desire you add or reduce the number of layers of clothing. But it should be remembered that overheating is as dangerous as hypothermia. If you sweat in the cold, your body begins to cool as soon as it stops sweating, and clothes that are soaked in sweat, instead of saving heat, will begin to transfer it directly to the atmosphere. It is very important to avoid sweating in the cold. Here is an approximate composition of clothing that should be worn:
�?� The body should wear thermal underwear or warm underwear like vests and pants.
�?� Woolen or semi-woolen clothing should be worn over the laundry.
�?� A sweater made of natural wool or a good substitute should follow (the latter is even preferable, since it provides the best heat and wind insulation).
�?� A down jacket or jacket should be worn over the sweater on a warm faux lining (such as padding polyester). The latter option is preferable, since natural fluff, when saturated with moisture, completely loses its heat-insulating properties.
�?� Outerwear should be windproof and water repellent.
For any trip, waterproof boots are best for you. DO NOT wear sneakers on the road - they will not protect you from the cold or from the water. The best travel shoes are hiking boots with thick flexible (but always solid!) Soles and high berets.
It is very important to properly care for the shoes, and it does not hurt to stock up on an additional set of laces. The leather upper must be regularly treated with a wax or wipe for wax-based shoes in order to maintain water resistance. Before each walk, carefully inspect your shoes for cracked leather, loose or torn seams, cracked soles, broken hooks, etc. Remember that the better you take care of your shoes, the better they will serve you - with proper handling a pair of hiking shoes can last up to ten years. Many tourists protect the boots of the march with nylon gaiters from moisture and dirt.
Socks are an important addition to shoes - many tourists put on two pairs of socks under their boots, as it protects well against calluses - dropsy. The combination in which to wear socks - a thin and thick pair, two thin or two thick pairs - is up to you, the only recommendation is to determine the optimal combination for yourself before a long march in advance
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